Do You Know?

Our “Do You Know” resource offers facts from relevant research in the fields of health, education, and psychology. We review data on topics such as sleep, cheating, mental health, media, play, and more. A few sample facts are listed below, but download the corresponding PDF file to read all the facts along with their source citations.


  • One-third (36%) of children have TVs in their bedrooms, ranging from 16% of children under 2, to 37% of 2- to 4-year-olds and 45% of 5- to 8-year-olds.
  • According to a study of children at more than 60 schools, by the end of 4th grade, those kids who had attended academically-oriented preschools earned significantly lower grades than did those who had attended more progressive, “child-initiated” preschool classes, where the emphasis was on play.
  • Toddlers 1-3 years old need 11-14 hours of sleep in a 24-hour period. At 18 mos. many toddlers go to one nap lasting 1-3 hours. Preschoolers 3-5 years old need 10-13 hours of sleep and most do not nap after 5 years of age. Children should never have TVs in their bedrooms. 

Elementary School

  • A review of research on homework showed almost no correlation between homework and achievement for elementary school students.
  • Up to 40% of school districts in the United States have reduced or entirely eliminated recess in order to devote more time to core academic activities.
  • Students in 4th-6th grade who went to bed an average of 30-40 minutes earlier improved in memory, motor speed, attention, and other abilities associated with math and reading test scores.

Middle School

  • 9- to 13-year-olds said they were more stressed by academics than any other stressor—even bullying or family problems (36% said they were stressed out the most by grades, school, and homework; 32% said family; 21% said friends, peers, gossip and teasing).
  • 90% of middle school students admitted to cheating at least once in school.
  • Project-based learning methods may help to decrease the gap in achievement between female and male middle school students.

High School

  • 73% of students listed academic stress as their number one reason for using drugs, yet only 7% of parents believe teens might use drugs to deal with stress.
  • High-achieving private and public high school students average 3.07 hours of homework each night.
  • High school athletes have 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospital visits annually.


  • Undergraduates report several reasons why they cheat, including: fear of failure, parents demanding good grades, wanting to keep up with others, wanting to get a good grade, and feeling that the teacher is unfair.
  • 40% of college students reported engaging in binge drinking (having 5 or more drinks for male students and 4 drinks for female students at one “drinking occasion”) in the past two weeks.
  • A survey of 31,500 freshman undergraduate students at 114 different universities found that nearly 2 out of 5 students found it difficult to develop effective study skills and adjust to the academic demands of college. 51.9% of freshman undergraduates reported finding it somewhat or very difficult to manage their time effectively. 41.2% reported frequently feeling overwhelmed by all they had to do.

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